Evaluation of the impact of dietary intervention on gastrointestinal microbiota and metabolites after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is lacking. We conducted a feasibility study as the first of a two-phase trial. Ten adults received resistant potato starch (RPS) daily from day -7 to day 100. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of RPS and its effect on intestinal microbiome and metabolites, including the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. Feasibility met the preset goal of 60% or more, adhering to 70% or more doses; fecal butyrate levels were significantly higher when participants were on RPS than when they were not (P textless 0.0001). An exploratory objective was to evaluate plasma metabolites. We observed longitudinal changes in plasma metabolites compared to baseline, which were independent of RPS (P textless 0.0001). However, in recipients of RPS, the dominant plasma metabolites were more stable compared to historical controls with significant difference at engraftment (P textless 0.05). These results indicate that RPS in recipients of allogeneic HCT is feasible; in this study, it was associated with significant alterations in intestinal and plasma metabolites. A phase 2 trial examining the effect of RPS on graft-versus-host disease in recipients of allogeneic HCT is underway. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02763033 .